Moderland utan kvinnor: kast, klass och patriarkat i Manish Jhas Matrubhoomi

Författare

  • Johanna Gondouin Mångkulturellt centrum och Stockholms universitet
  • Suruchi Thapar-Björkert Uppsala universitet

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.55870/tgv.v43i2-3.14860

Nyckelord:

kast, klass, Indien, maskulinitet, våld

Abstract

This article offers a critical analysis of Manish Jha’s debut feature film Matrubhoomi: A Nation Without Women (2003). The movie offers a dystopic vision of a near future when the systematic killing of new born females would leave villages and its surroundings with no women in it at all. Referring to this phenomenon as ‘bachelor villages’, scholars have identified this as an emerging social problem with wide far-reaching implications for gender relations and social life in general. Existing scholarship has highlighted how the shortage of women leads to increasing levels of violence embodied in practices such as polyandry, child marriage, rape, trafficking and kidnapping of women from neighbouring regions. Furthermore, the film articulates a central paradox: the symbolic deification of the ‘mother of the nation’ in national imaginary and her systematic elimination through sex-selective reproductive technologies.

In our close reading, we draw on feminist political economy to understand the power dynamics shaped through the intersections of gender, class and caste and how this transforms the social fabric in a village which has systematically eliminated women and girl-children. We combine a thematic analysis with a reading of Matrubhoomi’s cinematic features.

Furthermore, the violence in the film is analyzed through what we call ”economies of violence” which is related to the paradoxical development trajectory in India. While the Indian government has initiated several schemes for the empowerment of women, these progressive processes are often accompanied by escalating violence against women, which cannot be abstracted from cultural configurations of gendered practices of son preference and sex selective abortions. We highlight the pivotal theme of remasculinization as constructed in relation to patriarchy, caste, class and sexuality and how it functions as a vector for economies of violence. We suggest that the film illustrates how a seemingly feminist agenda can be formulated from the position of a patriarchal, heteronormative, homophobic and transphobic logic.

Nedladdningar

Nedladdningsdata är inte tillgängliga än.

Referenser

Adarsh, Taran (2005) Matrubhoomi Movie Review: Matrubhoomi Movie. https://www.bollywoodhungama.com/movie/matrubhoomi/critic-review/ [21 januari 2023].

Agnihotri, B. Satish (2000) Sex Ratio Patterns in the Indian Population: A Fresh Exploration. New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Ali, Mohammad (2015) Produce 4 kids to protect Hinduism: Sakshi Maharaj. The Hindu 7 Januari 2015. https://www.thehindu.com/news/national/sakshi-stokes-another- controversy-asks-hindus-to-have-4-kids/article6763837.ece [22 januari 2023].

Andrew, Caroline, Armstrong, Pat, Armstrong, Hugh, Wallace, Clement och Vosko, Leah (red) (2003) Studies in Political Economy: Developments in Feminism. Toronto: Canadian Scholar’s Press.

Attane, Isabelle och Guilmoto, Christophe Z. (red) (2007) Watering the Neighbour’s Garden: The Growing Female Deficit in Asia. Paris: CICRED.

Banerjee, Nirmala (2002) Between the Devil and the Deep Sea: Shrinking Options for Women in Contemporary India. Kapadia, Karin (red) The Violence of Development: The Politics of Identity, Gender, and Social Inequalities in India. New Delhi: Kali for Women.

Banerji, Rita (2013) Bollywood Baffled Over Sex, Rape and Prostitution. Gender Forum 46: 20-37.

Banerjee, Suparno (2010) "No Country for Women": Gender Dystopias in Manjula Padmanabhan’s Escape and Manish Jha’s Matrubhoomi. Journal of Commonwealth and Postcolonial Studies 16(2): 111-125.

Bergeron, Suzanne (2001) Political economy discourses of globalization and feminist politics. Signs: Journal of women in culture and society 26(4): 983-1006.

Beteille, Andre (2007) Classes and Communities. Economic & Political Weekly 42(11): 945-953.

Bhatnagar, Rashmi Dube, Dube, Renu och Dube, Reena (2005) Female infanticide in India: A feminist cultural history. State University of Albany: New York Press.

Bongaarts, John och Guilmoto, C. Z. (2015) How many more missing women? Excess female mortality and prenatal sex selection, 1970–2050. Population and Development Review 41(2): 241-269.

Bose, Sunita och Trent, Katherine (2006) Socio-demographic determinants of abortion in India: A north-south comparison. Journal of Biosocial Science 38(2): 261-282.

Census of India (2011) Gender composition of the population. https://www. educationforallinindia.com/chapter5-gender-composition-of-population-2011-census. pdf [8 november 2023].

Chaudhuri, Sutapa (2014) Seeing like a Feminist: Representations of Societal Realities. Women-centric Bollywood Films. University of Calcutta, India, The Asian Conference on Film & Documentary 2014. Official Conference Proceedings.

Chowdhry, Prem (2007) Contentious Marriages, Eloping Couples, Gender, Caste and Patriarchy in Northern India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Chowdhry, Prem (2005) Crisis of masculinity in Haryana: the unmarried, the unemployed and the aged. Economic and Political Weekly 40(49): 5189–5198.

Croll, Elizabeth (2001) Endangered Daughters. Discrimination and Development in Asia. New York och London: Routledge.

Dasgupta, Satarupa (2007) Matrubhoomi: Gender Violence and the Motherland. Asian Cinema 18: 180-196.

Das Gupta, Monica och Shuzhuo, Li (1999) Gender bias in China, South Korea and India: effects of war, famine and fertility decline. Development & Change 30(3): 619-652.

Deepa V. Rao, Mohan, Baru, Rama, Bisht, Ramila, Sarojini N. och Murray, Susan (2013) Sourcing Surrogates – Actors, agencies and networks. New Delhi: Zubaan.

Desai, Manali (2016) Gendered Violence and India’s Body Politic. New Left Review 99(5-6): 67-83.

Doval, Nikita (2004) Rape: Future of Indian woman? Times of India 3 mars 2004. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/entertainment/hindi/bollywood/news/rape-future- of-indian-woman/articleshow/535391.cms

Dyson, Tim (2012) Causes and consequences of skewed sex ratios Annual Review of Annual Review of Sociology 38(1): 443-461.

Eklund, Lisa, och Purewal, Navtej (2017) The bio-politics of population control and sex- selective abortion in China and India. Feminism & Psychology 27(1): 34-55.

Genette, Gérard (2002) Seuils. Editions du Seuil: Paris.

Gondouin, Johanna, Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi och Rao, Mohan (2020) Dalit Feminist Voices on Reproductive Rights and Reproductive Justice. Economic and Political Weekly 55(40): 38-46.

Gopinath, Gayatri (2000) Queering Bollywood: Alternative Sexualities in Popular Indian Cinema. Journal of Homosexuality 39(3/4): 283-298.

Greenhalgh, Susan (2013) Patriarchal demographics? China’s sex ratio reconsidered. Population and Development Review 38: 130-149.

Guilmoto Christophe Z. (2012) Skewed Sex Ratios at Birth and Future Marriage Squeeze in China and India, 2005–2100. Demography 49(1): 77–100.

Indian Medical Association (2019) Agenda Papers of 222nd meeting of the Central Working Committee. https://www.ima-india.org/ima/pdfdata/cwc-Agenda%20 Discussions%20and%20Reporting.pdf [27 oktober 2023].

Kapadia, Karin. (2002). Introduction: The Politics of Identity, Social Inequalities and Economic Growth. Kapadia, Karin. (red) The Violence of Development: The Politics of Identity, Gender, and Social Inequalities in India. New Delhi: Kali for Women.

Kapur, Ratna och Cossman, Brenda (1993) Communalising gender/engendering community: women, legal discourse and saffron agenda. Economic and Political Weekly 28(17): 35-44.

Kaur, Ravinder (2008) Dispensable Daughters and Bachelor Sons: Sex Discrimination in North India. Economic and Political Weekly 43(30): 109-114.

Kaur, Ravinder (2010) Khap panchayats, sex ratio and female agency. Economic and Political Weekly 43(23): 14-16.

Kaur, Ravinder (2013) Mapping the Adverse Consequences of Sex Selection and Gender Imbalance in India and China. Economic and Political Weekly 48(35): 37-44.

Larsen, Mattias och Kaur, Ravinder (2013) Signs of change? Sex ratio imbalance and shifting social practices in Northern India. Economic and Political Weekly 48(35): 45-52.

Lewis, Anjalee (2008) A nation without women. Mercator. https://www.mercatornet. com/a_nation_without_women [21 januari 2023].

Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (1994) Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostic Techniques (Prohibition of Sex Selection) Act, Government of India. https://pndt.gov. in/ [26 januari 2023].

Ministry of Home Affairs (2011) Office of the Registrar General and Census Commisioner, Government of India. https://censusindia.gov.in/census.website/data/ census-tables [26 januari 2023].

Monti, Alessando (2016) They Kill All Kittens Don’t They. Basu, Sisir, Monti, Alessandro, Rozzonelli, Carole (red) Experiments in Film Appreciation. Lyon and Torino: New Dost Edition.

Nagel, Joane (1998) Masculinity and nationalism: Gender and sexuality in the making of nations. Ethnic and Racial Studies 21(2): 242-269.

Newsclick (2019) Newsclick Report: AIDWA Condemns IMA President’s Stand on PCPNDT Act. Newsclick 10 maj 2019. https://www.newsclick.in/aidwa-condemns-ima- presidents-stand-pcpndt-act#:~:text=New%20Delhi%3A%20Condemning%20the%20 approach%20of%20the%20country%27s,of%20female%20foeticide%20related%20 to%20pre-natal%20sex%20selection [27 oktober 2023].

Osignerad (2005) Where have all the girls gone? The Telegraph Online 22 maj 2005. https://www.telegraphindia.com/culture/style/where-have-all-the-girls-gone/ cid/1552036 [Januari 2023].

Pais, Arthur J. (2003) I was scared to see so many Indians get upset with Matrubhoomi. Rediff.com 16 oktober 2003 https://www.rediff.com/movies/2003/oct/16jha.htm [21 januari 2023].

Panigrahi, Lalitha (1972) British Social Policy and Female Infanticide in India. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal.

Patel, Tulsi (red) (2007) Sex Selective Abortion in India: Gender. Society and New Reproductive Technologies. New Delhi: Sage.

Pattnaik, Sonali (2009) Outside the Frame: The Representation of the Hijra in Bollywood Cinema. Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific 22(10).

Purewal, Navtej (2018) Sex selective abortion, neoliberal patriarchy and structural violence in India. Feminist Review 119(1): 120-138.

Purewal, Navtej K. (2020 [2010]) Son preference: Sex selection, gender and culture in South Asia. New York: Routledge.

Rao, Maithili (2005) A world without women. Frontline. https://frontline.thehindu.com/ arts-and-culture/cinema/article30205216.ece 1 juli 2005 [Januari 2023].

Sangari, Kumkum (2018) Solid: Liquid. A (Trans)national Reproductive Formation. New Delhi: Tulika Books.

Santosh, S. (2016) Questions on the Technologies of Fascism: Making the ‘Modi Effect’. Economic and Political Weekly 51(3): 21-24.

Sarkar, Tanika (2002) Semiotics of Muslim Terror: Muslim Children and Women in Hindu Rashtra. Economic and Political Weekly 37(28): 2872–2876.

Sarkar, Tanika (2012) Woman, community, and nation: A historical trajectory for Hindu identity politics. Jeffery, Patricia. och Basu, Amrita (red) Appropriating gender: Women’s activism and politicized religion in South Asia. New York and London: Routledge.

Sen, Amartya (1990) More Than 100 Million Women Are Missing. The New York Review of Books 20 december 1990.

Sen, Amartya (2003) Missing women--revisited. BMJ 327(7427):1297-1298.

Sheth, L. Dhirubhai (1999) Secularization of Caste and Making of New Middle Class. Economic and Political Weekly 34(35): 2502-2510.

Srinivas, Narasimhachar Mysore (2003) An Obituary on Caste as a System. Economic and Political Weekly 38(5): 455-459.

Sudha, Shreeniwas och Irudaya Rajan, S. (1999) Female Demographic Disadvantage in India 1981-91: Sex Selective Abortions and Female Infanticide. Development & Change 30(3): 585-618.

Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi och Ranwa, Ruchika (2021) The Political Economy of Violence: Gender, Sexuality and SDGs. Binswanger, Christa och Zimmermann, Andrea (red) Transitioning to Gender Equality. MDPI: Basel.

Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi (2015 [2006]) Women in the Indian national movement: Unseen faces and unheard voices, 1930-42. New Delhi: Sage.

Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi och Tlostanova, Madina (2018) Identifying to dis-identify: Occidentalist feminism, the Delhi gang rape case and its internal others. Gender, Place & Culture 25(7): 1025-1040.

Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi och Sanghera, Gurchathen (2014) The Ascendancy of the Khap Panchayats in Contemporary India: Gender, caste, globalisation and violence. Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific 34(3).

Vanita, Ruth (red) (2002) Queering India: Same-Sex Love and Eroticism in Indian Culture and Society. New York: Routledge.

Vishwanath L. S. (2004) Female Infanticide: The Colonial Experience. Economic and Political Weekly 39(22): 2313-2318.

Vishwanath, L. S. (2007) Female Infanticide, Property and the Colonial State. Patel, Tulsi (red) Sex Selective Abortion in India: Gender. Society and New Reproductive Technologies. New Delhi: Sage.

Wilson, Kalpana, Ung, Jennifer och Purewal, Navtej (2018) Gender, Violence and the Neoliberal State in India. Feminist Review 119(1):1-6.

Wilson, Kalpana (2018) For Reproductive Justice in an Era of Gates and Modi: The Violence of India’s Population Policies. Feminist Review 119(1): 89-105.

Downloads

Publicerad

2023-12-08